Memoir Of Prof. Charles L. Loos
Below are the personal observations of Charles Louis Loos. Special Thanks To Debbie Warner Bowman, descendant of C.L. Loos & J.M. Hocker. She has made this page possible through the painstaking effort of transcription of the personal journal of C.L. Loos. She requests that none of this information is used in publication without her permission. Contact her at Kayesme@aol.com. See her website at http://hometown.aol.com/kayesme/Kayesme.html
For many years it has been my intention to write out a sketch of my life's
history. I desire to do this, not because I am vain enough to think that such an
account would be of any value or any interest to the public, outside, possibly,
of the narrow circle of a very few close friends, and with these even, I am well
aware, such an interest would be altogether transitory. I am led to write out
this life story only for the sake of my children, and their children, who I
trust, will not only desire to know this story, but to whom I think it will also
be of some value. For this story will reveal them much that is as yet unknown to
them, since the earliest part of my life was spent in a land far away from this
land of their births and their life; a spot of the earth, moreover, of another
tongue, and of altogether other habits and manners than those with which they
are familiar. The country of my birth and early life, furthermore is an old, old
land, with a history, rich, strange and most interesting in every way. A land of
romantic story. In all Europe, of such an eventful and wonderful history as the valley
of the Rhine, I think, in which I was born and spent my boyhood. My
children will take an interest in knowing where and how I passed my boyhood. But
they are interested, also, I am sure in knowing something of my family, on my
father's side and my Mother's. They will read with pleasure and profit, I am
sure, my many incidents connected with my early days in Europe, for these fall
into a period and in a land full of incidents that will excite the attention of
the intelligent minds, such as are eager for the knowledge of such things. The
reasons that urged my Father to seek this great land of freedom and better life
and to bring his family here, with all the incidents of the voyage, long and difficult
in those days, my children will read with eager interest. Then the story of the
death of my Father, of the hard struggles of my Mother and her children, thus
bereft, in a land of strangers, for years; how wonderfully the God in whom we
always trusted, as children trust a loving Father, led us on through those first
years of our history in America. All these things they will read with interest,
and profit to them. In a word, I have always thought, since my children have
been given to me, that the simple yet not altogether uneventful story of my
life, as I have lived it to my present ripe years, ought to be known to them,
and that they will appreciate it and cherish it. My life has been of intense
interest and instruction and profit to me. I read it over constantly, looking
over the dear pages of memory, far back to my earliest days. I have been blessed
indeed with a very extraordinary memory, I can sit down and see in clearest
distinctive detail the pages of my life, its pictures of scenes, and its events.
The days may perhaps come, ere very long, when this good faithful, happy memory,
may fail, and its pages become dim, or altogether blank. For this reason, I am
admonished not to delay this task before me any longer; but to hasten to fulfill
what I consider is a pious sacred duty to those dearest to me, and for whom so
largely I have lived. I may here add, that some of my children have asked me to
write these memoirs. Lexington, Kentucky
Signed CHARLES LOUIS LOOS
My birthplace is Worth (Woerth); in the lower Alsace, (in German,) Woerth is in German a very common name of towns, any can be found in various combinations all over the German lands. It seems to indicate a place surrounded by waters, as may be seen by noticing the different Woerths in Germany and Switzerland. Nonnenworth or Woerth is an island in the Rhine with Graferworth along side of it, between Bons and Dingen. So also Donasworth, on the Danube, in Bavaria. Often it indicates simply a place in the bend of the stream, or one with streams on both sides of it. The latter is the land with my native place, as also with Worth near Regensberg in Bavaria. Immediately below the Rhine-Ball below Schaffasusen, is a little islet, with the Rhine on one side, and a little arm of the river, running around the islet on the other side. You cross over to it on a little bridge, or dyke. This island is called Worth. There being many places of this name, my birthplace is distingished by the stream on which it is situated...which now runs through the middle of the town. This stream is the Sauer. In the Alantian dialect, the SUR, and hence the town is called in German WORTH-ON DER SAWER, in French, WORETT-SUE SAUER; (Woerth on the Sauer) this is a very common way of distinguishing places all over Europe. In England as well as on the continent, WORTH-OR DER SAUER is a very old place. Its existence and history goes back to the time of the Roman occupation of the Rhine Country. On the hill immediately above the town on the southeast side, is the crowning the top of the hill. The HEATHER on Pagen Roof; a large rock in city (in its natural position) rising from the ground like a large altar. This is so called because the Romans used it (as perhaps the Germans did before them) as a place of sacrifice and worship. Four small statues, were of old found here, of Roman Gods, which are yet in the possession of the town. They used to be kept in the tire of my boyhood, in the old engine-house, but when I revisited Worth in 1868 I found them set up in the little square in the town, as the most notable memorials of Worths ancient history and fame. The names have been chisled on the statues, these "heather gods" as they were called, were always an object of great curiosity to us lads, and really of secret awe and dread. The children could never persuade themselves that there was not something "infernal" about them. In Olden times, centuries ago, in the middle ages and much later, the town was surrounded by a wall, and was fortified. A part of this wall yet exists. The houses are built against it, and the MUR (Mauer Wall, as we called it Alantian dialect) afforded many convenient and curious narrow passages. All kinds of danger and hiding places forth boys. It was capital opportunity for all manner of sports for us. I knew every hole in it and passage over it; and in my visits in '68 and '70 I diligently sought this cherished MUR again, and examined all its loved mysteries, and found myself there, a boy again. A thousand fond recollections came back to me as I looked upon this ruin of olden times.
My Grandfathers name was the same as mine CHARLES LOUIS LOOS. He was born in the Alsace. There were two other sons(my grandfather's brothers), whose names I have never had fixed in my mind. One of these brothers lived and died in Paris, the other in Hesse-Dermstadt, in Germany. There are still, I believe, some members of the Paris family in that city. Napoleon III sent as the French agent to Mexico, to attend to certain French interests of money there, EDWARD LOOS, a banker of Paris.
The name Loos, is very extended in Western Germany, especially in Hesse-Dermstadt, as I have learned from many sources. The Elector of Hesse, who sold his men to George III of England, to help this Monarch subdue his American Colonies, had a General Loos, who had the boldness to say "I will not serve you any longer." The name Loss is also extensive in the Lowlands. Rembrandt had relatives of this name. I have met a number of men bearing this name, and all were from Hesse. A cousin of my father, of the Hesse-Dermstadt branch, came to the United States some sixty years ago or more, and my Father, on coming to the United States in the early part of the year 1833, sought to find him, but failed. Doubtless some of the Looses in PA. are related to me, & possibly to the family of this cousin. Several of this name, singularly, are Ministers of the Gospel. One is the Pastor of the German Reformed Church at Bethlehem, PA. This, I suppose is the Rev. I. K. Loos, who aided in translating the life of Zwingli,(the Swiss Reformer) by I. Loos in my library. The story of Cornelius Loos, in the Nation, of Nov.11, 1886, has been read by most of my children. It is noticed in the appendix, on pg. 184 of this work. My granfather was a man of education & culture. He had been in college & studied besides German & French, of which he mastered, Latin & also Greek. His first Greek book is in my Library. He had quite a respectable library, of all classes of books. Many of which were in the possession of my Grandmother & were the happiness of my boyhood; I read them all as fast as I could get through with them, even books on Medicine, surgery, ect. Some of them were the old fashioned hugh folios; & I was in the habit of laying them on the floor & opening them there. I read them lying down with my face to the floor. I remember I read a number of books in this way. My grandfather was bred to the law. His first official position was that of Clerk of the Court, while yet young; & this was his occupation when he was married. The office is called in France "greffier"(Latin, graphiarius) or registar, prothonotary---keeper of the Court records. Her afterwards becamse Notaire public. An office of more importance, & higher dignity in France than in America. This office he held until his death. My Grandfather was a very enlightened man, free from all taint of superstition, & so brought up his family. In this my grandmother sympathized with hims. No one was allowed to tell ghosts stories to the children. He took every precaution against superstition in the minds of his children. This was not an easy task. In those old countries, superstitions of every kind had lived the ideas & habits of the people, from earliest times, heathen & Christian. Almost every spot had some strange superstitions history of mystery connected with it, especially in the towns, among the old, centuries old, & often strangely built houses. Every child in the town had learned of those haunted places, & of the weird ghost stories connected with them. It was therefore not a comfortable thing for children, & even grown up boys & girls, to have to go through the dark, narrow tortuous streets & alleys past the place of evil report. I know all about this by experience. To train his boys to courage, to freedom from superstition fear, it was my grandfather's habit, at ten & even eleven o'clock at night, to send one of the older boys, to go to the distant public well, to bring him a pitcher of fresh water & this at all times of year. This mighty tour led them past some of these haunted places. The boys went & bravely executed their task in turns & so grew up fearless. My Father was a bold Apostle against all sorts of superstition folly,religious or otherwise. He never weary of denouncing the abominable superstition of the Catholic Church. I learned this of his habits even after he came to America. The people of New Franklin told me how earnestly he denounced all superstitions stories, common among the foreign Gersna & the Penn. Germans who lived in & about this village of Ohio, & among whom he had a great influence. My Grandmother's family lived in Worth, & had been established there for a long time. The family's name was BALLIS;they were of the most respectable class in the town, & owned considerable property. I remember three of the family only. Besides my Grandmother, two brother's & a sister. The oldest brother, the oldest of all was a tall fine looking man, who always dressed in the old style, in velvet knee-breeches, with silver kneed buckles, & the same kind on his shoes; & he always wore a three-cornered hat. He was a member of the town council, an honor shared only by the best citizens. He had seen service under Morean in the Army of the Rhine before Napoleon's day, under the King Louis XIV. I remember a story about him, which my Grandmother often related to me. During an engagement with the enemy, his horse became wild with the tumult of cannon & small arms, & became unmanageable. He rushed furiously, in spite of every effort of his rider, towards a precipice; the dragon had just time enough to disengage himself from the stirrups & throw himself out of the saddle, when the mad steed went over the precipice. Whenever I saw my Granduncle, I gazed at him with wonder & thought at this scene, & when he would be gone, I generally insisted on my Grandmother telling me the story over again, with all the details. I remember vividly, at this hour how one morning the old Uncles granddaughter came knocking at the door before we were up, & brought the sad news that he had been struck down by a violent paralysis, & was dying. He did that morning, ever over seventy years old. The other brother was the youngest of the family & lived in the neighborhood of Urvilles. My Grandmother did not esteem him very highly. Her sister older then herself, was a widow "Tante Hermann," we called her. She had lived her married life in the city of Strassburg, & had propery, & insisted in always going herself to Strassburg to collect the rents, even when she was seventy years old. She had no children, & left at her death, all her property to my Grandmother & my Aunt Dorothee. This old aunt was very much attached to us children, especially my oldest sister Emilie. When we left Worth for America, the poor old woman walked after the wagons as far as she could see them, & only turned home when they were out of sight. When I visited Worth in 1868,they told me she seemed lost after our departure, wandering about in a brokenhearted way, talking constantly of the children, especially "Emilisnle," as she called her fondly, & really never recovered her cheerfulness again. She died not long afterwards, as they thought of "homesickness for the children." As I lived the last seven years of my life before leaving for America, with my Grandmother, I was very intimate with the Old "Tante Hermann" & learned all her ways. She had become very superstitious, & was fond of telling me her stories of ghost. etc, very much to the annoyance of my Grandmother who had no belief in such things, & who rebuked her sister for talking such things to me. My Grandmothers name was Dorothea (German) Dorothee (French).
My Grandfather & Grandmother were married at Worth, sometime during the year 1789, where he was at that time living, some two years after they moved to the town of Hatten, also in the Lower Alsace, & the center of a Canton, like Worth. They did not live long there & returned to Worth where the family lived there afterwards, & where both died. They had eight children. The birth records in my Grandfathers own hand are in my possession, sent to me after my Aunt Louise's death, & in one of the two leaves taken out of the book to be found in the box sent to me after her death. The following is the record.
JUNE 20th, 1790 Carl Ludvig (Charles Louis), baptized the 22nd known by the name of Charles Louis.
DECEMBER 13th, 1791 Philip Heinrich, baptized the 15th. This child was born at Hatten, the others all at Worth. Called Phillip.
JANUARY 29th, 1794(old style) or the tenth Pluviase, year 2nd of the Republic(new style) Maria Dorothea, baptized the 31st. This was my noble Aunt, of whom I have told my family much that is good. Called Dorothea, or briefly Dortel.
DECEMBER 23rd, 1795 or Mivase 2nd, 4th year of the Republic, George Jacob, baptized January 4th. This was my Father. He always wrote his name Jacques, George, but the family always called him Jacob (French pronunciation, Shacob).
DECEMBER 4th, 1797, old style, or 14th Primaire, 6th year of the Republic, Salome Louise, baptized 8th of December. This was my Aunt Louise, who was the last to die.
NOVEMBER 7th, 1768 old style, or 17th Brumaire, 8th year of the Republic, Johann
Wilhelm, baptized the 9th of November.
APRIL 4th, 1802 old style, or the 9th year of the Republic, 12. Catherine Magadalena, baptized the 27th of the same month. Called, as the youngest, by the diminutive Lanele.
The history of these children, of those I did not personally know, I have from my Grandmother. The oldest, CHARLES LOUIS LOOS,(this double name is very often pronounced together) lived to be about nineteen years old. He contracted a pulmonary malady, which ended in consumption; this was the only case known to me of this disease in my Father's family. I learned from my Grandmother that he was a most excellent young man, of strong religious force of character, & deeply devoted to his mother. He outlived his Father several years, & was a great consolation to his Mother in her widowhood. He was to pursue his Father's vocation, & was going through the perparatoy cours of study. IT was a terrible blow to his Mother when he was taken from her. It has been customary so I have learned, in the family of my Grandfather to call the oldest son by this name.
PHILIPP, was apprecticed to learn the saddlering trade, to my grandmothers youngest brother, who as I have above stated, lived in Urvilles. He was, before he reached his twentieth year, drafted int Napoleons Army, & placed in the department of activity in the Army, for which his trade fitted him. He was in the Russian campaign, & with the French Army reach Moscow. Most of his regiment, & with these himself,perished. The few of his regiment that returned, could only report that he was placed on an elevated wall or tower, as a picket guard; the sergeants last words to him were "Do your duty; maintain your post, but be on your guard, as the enemies were swarming secretly, all around. My grandmother often repeated to me the last words, as they were reported to her by a comrade who was by, perhaps the one whom my uncle relieved. The words were "Sontinelle, prenez-garde-vous"(Sentinel be on your guard, or keep a good lookout for yourself.) This was the last of Phillipp Loos, he was most likely shot by the enemy, or lost in the horrors of the retreat; as he was left there by the Army, which as is often the case in such retreats, had not time to relieve him from his post. This was another hard blow on the widowed mother. My Aunt, Dorothee, & Louise never married, nor did my uncle Wilhelm. Their history will be given by itself. The first died only two or three years before I visited Worth in 1865. My Father died in 1834.
FRITZ, Died of dysentary when he was but a little boy, also after his father. My Grandmother often told me the story of his short life & early death. She cherished his memory with tenderest affection. Her Pritzele, as she always called him when speaking of him, was the apple of her eye, as a child. She had these diminutives for all her children & grandchildren; they are used among the Germans as names of endearment.
MAGDALENA, was married to Charles Tisset, then an under officer in the revenue
guard of the Rhine, a military organization while he was stationed at Worth and
in the vicinty. She was still living when I was in Worth in 1868, and was there
on a visit, although living at Strassburg. She died when the war with Germany
had already commenced, and just before the Germans besieged Strassburg. She was
one of the last to be buried outside of the walls of the city. Uncle Tisset was
in Strassburg, and in Worth in 1868. More on him hereafter.
WILHELM: My "Onkel Wilhelm," as we always called him, deserves a special mention from me. When young, about fourteen years of age, his Mother being a widow, he was apprenticed to the house of "Bartholdi" in Strassburg, a large wholesale and retail iron establishment. Here his intelligence, diligence and faithfulness grained him the highest praise, as can be seen by the testimony from the Widow Bartholdi, to be found among the letters in the box sent to me by Aunt Louise, the firm removed after some years to Weissenburg, and assumed a different name,another partnet being taken into it. With this house my Uncle remained over fifty years, until he retired from the infirmity of years from all business. He came then to live with his sister Louise, and died there several years after I visited in 1865. He was then living in Worth, retired. He never married, lived well and accumilated a sufficient sum to afford him and his sister Louise a comfortable living. He was classed as a rentier, that is, one who lived from the "tentes" or interest, of money loaned out. He conducted as chief man the large iron business of his firm. Did the buying. When I last saw him in 1868, he told me how even in cold winter, he would go into the iron districts, among the iron works in the Vosges Mountains, mostly on foot, and make large purchases, and be back late in the evening, or the next morning. He never allowed himself any idle time, and it was hard to get him to retire from the active employment, in which he had been engaged some fifty years. When asked why, as he often was, he never go married, he would jocularly say, "he would not get married and have to eat potatoes," referring to the fact that the poor people in his country lived chiefly on potatoes. He was fortunate in "winning," when he had to go into the "Draft for the Army"; that is, his "Proxy" who "drew" the number for him, was so fortunate as to take out a number from one abode the "losing" numbers; those who drew the latter had to go into the Army. He was one of my sponsors as Godfather. For this reason, he assumed the care of educating me. He furnished me all my school books, etc., and paid for them, and any extra classes, such as French. Weissenburg had an excellent College in it, and it was his intention to take me to that as soon as I had gone to my thirteenth year in school at Worth. Going to America frustrated this plan, much to his regret and mine and that of my family. He spoke and wrote, with equal readiness, German and French. When I bade him "goodbye" in 1868, his last words to me were "Bonne Saute," (bon voyage). As an iron merchant, he was greatly interested in the account I gave him of the great iron ocean steamers. "Yes, yes," he said "they are made of "fer forge." On his death, he left his income, as a "life assignment" to Aunt Louise," and she had a very abundant support. At her death it was all to go to Charles Tissot, my cousin. My Aunt Louise attributed this to the influence of the "Tissots" over him. She greatly changed at it. Her special affection, was for the children of her brother, Jacob. My uncle, helped my Father considerably when he went to America, and in bringing the family over. He was always very attached to me, and I shall always remember him with gratitude. He was rather of small stature, considerably below my height, but heavy, plump as he was always a good "liver."
My Aunt Dorothee was, in my judgement, the noblest of all the children, along side of my Father, left to my Grandmother. She was a woman of rare intelligence and superior qualities of mind and heart. To this day, her name is revered by all who knew her. She was profoundly religious, with a very firm trust in God. She was wise, calm, and self-possed; duty and correct principle were the rule of her life in all things. In her appearance, she was a very fine looking woman of regular attractive features and person. Full in form and of good health. Her manners were always those of a cultivated lady. She could speak Frence fluently. Early in life, she reciprocated the attachment of a young man with the name of "Weimer," of Worth. A Devotion of heart she carried with her to her grave. My grandmother and father could not consent for a moment to any connection between the families, for reasons which will appear when I speak of my Grandfather's last years and death. My Father would not even consent to the visits of young Weimer when he grew into manhood; and as my father represented the family and my Grandmother felt the same way. These visits were strictly interdicted. After my Father went to America, Weimer supposed the chief difficulty was out of the way. By his time he was an officer in the Army, Colonel of Dragons. He came to Worth, where his Father and Sisters were still living and asked the privilege of a visit, to which my Grandmother consented. She herself would not see him, but asked me to remain in the room. Colonel Weimer came; he was a magnificient low king man, and in his full uniform; cocked had and splendid plumes. He made a wonderful impression on me especially as he showed me a good deal of attention. I witnessed this interview, he plead his case earnestky, with my Aunt; she listened with tears, but finally told him that while her devotion to him should never cease, she had resolved in submission to her Mother's will, never to marry since she could not marry the only man she cared for. Once more after that he visited my Aunt, but she remained firm. I saw this last parting, although I was not present at the meeting. My Aunt remained firm to her pledge, and died, unmarried, at a ripe old age, having been through a long life, the faithful child and guardian of her widowed Mother. This fact always made me look at her, and think of her with a kind of actual reverence. She was an excellent talker, and letter writer. Some of her letters are in my possesion; some she wrote to others, and many, she wrote to me. When we started in our emigrant wagons for America, she accompanied us several miles, and I remember well her parting from us. It was a very tender touching scene (As to the letters from my relatives, I may some day make translated extract from them, for the sake of my family). My Aunt often wrote to us in America; I have now preserved a number of letters. As she was a very intelligent woman, of more than ordinary gifts of mind, and of the noblest qualities of heart (she was a good letter writer). As long as she lived to her latest years, she kept up the correspondence with us, and I make it a duty, but above all a great happiness myself to write her. She lived to a ripe old age, only some two or three years before I visited Worth in 1868. When I was there at that time, a constant exclamation of my two Aunts yet living was, "Oh if Dortele had lived to see this day," that is, to see me again. She had always taken chief interest in us. She, in subline filial devotion, remained with her Mother till her death. I reguard this fact in my Aunts history, as a family treasure; an honor to our name of the highest value.
LOUISE: The difference between Dorothee and Louise, in a sense, was that the first was Mary, the second Martha. Louise, as my Grandmother so often told me, was a child of extraordinary activity and energy, from her earliest days. She was less inclined to books, and such pursuits as cultivate the mind. And yet when I visited her, in 1868 and in 1878, I was surprised at her intelligence and interlectual power. She had a very find head. She was a good thinker, and quick to gather ideas, and used very good language. I remember one day after I returned (in 1878) from a tour trip up to Liebfraneberg, that she asked me how the view from the mountains impressed me, and added, "Isn't the panorama magnificient?" The word "panorama," is not usual in people's language. As her Mother was a widow, and of slender means, she could not keep all her children at home. Louise, when a grown young woman, passed among strangers friends of the family and in honorable positions. The training she had received from her Mother, had veined her, in character, habits, and domestic management, excellent attainments. She took charge of the entire family management in some excellent households. She became Governess is the family of an eminent artist in Paris, where I saw her in 1834, on our way to America. With this family she went to London, where she remained for a while. She was fond of relating to me in 1868 and 1878, her experiences in the English capital, she was favorably struck with the habit of the English to GO TO CHURCH ON SUNDAY, as contract with the lack of this habit in Paris. She also remembered a number of English words. She finally returned to her home to live with her Mother and sister. She became the "diligent housekeeper," as Aunt Dorothee used to write to me, and outlived all the family. Uncle William, when he retired from business, also came to live at home. His means kept the family in fine circumstances. Grandmother, or "Grandmama"(Grassmama") as we always called her, had been dead for sometime when "The Uncle" came home; and Aunt Dorothee lived but a short time. He and Aunt Louise lived together for some ten of twelve years. Aunt Louise died. In her last years when she had the entire income of her Brother's "revenue" as the French call it, she was very much devoted to the family in America and was constantly disposed to "save ip" of this income, all she could for us. She put 5000 francs in my hands in 1878, to be delivered among the five children; and afterwards sent about 100 francs each to Louise and Emmie as "hausstenes" her contribution to these children to begin housekeeping with. Carie was married too later, and Louise was dead. She was very proud of the LOOS name and family, an honest pride all the family possesed. It was immense satisfaction to her to have two grandnieces named after her. Ours and Charlies little Louise. She lived long enough to know this and to see the latters photograph which I sent her. She was quite a character and had passed through many vicissitudes. I do not know that she ever had a love affair. If such was the case, I never knew of it. She must have had an admirable constitution, for she, I believe, never had a serious illness in her life. Like her Mother it was old age that finally released her from the earth. When I left her in 1878 she asked me as we were about to part, to give her my blessing, which I did. Such was her attachment to me, and her reguard for me. She was very, very proud of me on my visits, and at the attentions that were paid me by the best people in Worth, and I visited. One Sunday in 1878, I visited the village of Broschmiller, near Worth, and attended the afternoon service there, and made the acquaintance of Pastor (Pafarrer) Klein. I spent an hour with him, after the service, in his house, in a very intimate talk with him about America. Especially the religious conditions of our country, and he instisted that I come to dine with him following Sunday. When I related that incident to my Aunt in the evening, she was greatly delighted at it, and also because Pastor Klein said he would take me to the "Chateau" in the village to call on Baron Durckheim, a very distinguished nobleman, and a member of his church, I had seen it as a very young man and when I was a little boy I once at the Chateau to take a message to the Baroness. I could fill a paper book with my account of any one of my relatives whom I personally knew, but must keep myself within proper limits. Adding only that my Aunt Louise requested my friend Monsieur Louis Trantmann, to send me a few little momentoes after her death, with the box of rosewood in which she kept them. I must also add that when I came to Worth in 1878, I first stopped at the tavern and told the landlady, whom I well knew, that I supposed I would stay with them, and supposed my Aunt would be too old and weak to entertain me. "You had better not try that" said the woman, "Your Aunt is looking and ready for you and is in excellent condition. And sure enough, she had her two room, with dining room and kitchen etc., in splendid conditon. You could have eaten off her clean white floor. My own bedroom was in style, with writing desk (my uncles) etc., in capital style. She had a young woman to come everyday to wait on us, and attend to matters, and she insisted that I should pay her for the service the woman did me, putting the money in my hand. She showed me the immense treasures of all manner of linen she had; wanted to know if I could not take a good deal about it with me. It is custo,ary for good households to have such stores of clothing and linen, much of it very fine. There were fine stockings, shirts, handerchiefs, neckties, etc. of my uncles. In mass. This all fell into Madame Tissots hands. (The widow of young Tissot, my cousin and heir.)
My father as already stated, was born in December 1795. As the family after my Grandfathers death was reduced to narrow circumstances, the sons were put to business or trades after their school years and confirmation, at fourteen years of age. I have already stated what was done with the other. My father was committedd to the care of his Uncle Hermann at Strassburg. A tailor of means and prominence in his calling. Here he remained for a few years. As his Mother was a widow and had already given a son to the Army, according to the French laws this son was exempt from Military Service. But after the fatal Russian Campaign, on Napoleons return to Paris. My Father was then at home with his Mother at Worth, and was just recovering from an illness. Early in the morning, so my Grandmother often related the incident to me, the magistrate knocked at my Grandmother's door to announce to her this new call to Military Service, "to save the Fatherland from the invaders." The widow had intended to protest, in case this son should be summoned to the Servicee, but the young man, not yet fully recovered heard the words of the Magistrate in bed, at once he sprang out of his bed, opened the window, and told his Mother, who was talking to the Magistrate, that he was not only ready but eager to defend France. Nothing would dissuade him. He was always a passionately devoted patroit, full of Military ardor, and an enthusiastic Napoleonist. He at once enlisted and was sent to Paris where he entered a Regiment of "Lanciers" (Lancers), besides going through all the drill necessary for infantry, as was usual then and is now. He stayed in the Service until the fall of Napoleon. I do not think he saw any service in the field, and battle, beyond defensive operations. After Napoleon was sent to Helena, he returned home and remained there a while. He spent after this several years in Paris to perfect himself in his trade and finally returned home as "Maitre Tailleur," (master tailor with the highest diploma in his trade. No one was allowed to display this title, or his sign, until he passed through all the degrees. He was always full of the military passion, and I have seen him drill others in the infantry tactics. The Lance was a pecular delight to him. When the Revolution of 1830 had triumped, and the National Guard was reformed all over France, with Lafayette as Chief Commander, my Father became a drill sergeant, and his commission as such is still in my possession. This was in a Regiment of Crensdiers, in the National Guard.
My Mother's native place is PIRMASOUS,(Pirmasen) a little city in Rhenish Bavaria (Rhein Bayern), sometimes also called the Bavarian Palitinate-die bayerische Pfsltz. This province of Bavaria lies immediately along side of the Alsace, and is separated from Bavaris proper(the old kingdom) by Baden and the upper part of Wurtenberg. This province is a very fine part of Germany, near the Rhine, it is hilly and mountainous, but filled with an admirable population. In many parts predominately, as at Pirmasous, Protestant. If you look on the map, you will see this mountainous and hilly character of the country, of which the Schwerzwald, the Black Forest, is the principal range, sending its outrunners into the Palitinate on one, the east side, and the Voages mountains on the west side. I once visited in my boyhood, with my Mother and sister Emilie, the city of Permasous, and the tour was one of the richest experiences in my early life. It was at the opening of Spring, in the year 1834 (in the August of this year, we started to America). My Mother's desire was once more to visit her native place and her kindred. I was eleven years of age, and my sister twelve. The first part was made of course on foot, and in easy stages. (On my French map of the Bas-Rhin, you can trace the route to the Bavarian border).
We started along the valley of the Sauer, striking at once into forest region, first to Langen-sulzbach, then Neidersteinbach, and Obersteinbach, all of which names will suggest the character of the country. It was to me a grand experience. The pretty villages, the vast forest, ofter of majestic pines. The huge rocky elevations towering skywards, the beautiful valley, over and over old castles, seated high up on the lofty brows of the mountains. The ever changing dialects, all this filled me with unending delight. In the midst of an immense forest we were approaching the Bavarian borders. Here a Bavarian Revenue guard, "a conamor" in uniform met us. A very polite man. This strange sight, quite new to me, uniform and all, excited my attention. I, myself, was partly dressed in French uniform, as I had been in the young National Guard, and was very proud of my French "Regimentals." The guard at once took quite a fancy to me, especially, since I soon revealed my French vanity, nationally. On his questioning me, I very frankly told him that I thought the French uniform was finer then the Bavarian, and the soldiers better soldiers. This had been indoctrinated into me by my Father. My friend with his German trappings and shirt, enjoyed my boyish enthusiasm and vanity hugely. By and by we came to the border,-stone on one side of which was the "F." On the other the "B" nothing would do for me but that I must straddle the stone, so that I could say I was half in France and half in Bayern. This wonderfully amused the Bavarian. I had been repeatedly asking when we should get to LUDWIGSWINKEL, the first Bavarian village across the border, intimating that I was getting very hungry. Our guard assured me we should soon be there, and asked me if I was fond of "pfannkuchen," a kind of omelet, called by the Alsatians "eier-kucher," (egg cakes), by the Germans pan-cakes. They are baked a good thickness and the full size of the pan, and browned on both sides. Now as this was to me what the Germans call a "leibgericht," a favorite dish, I told my friend that I was emmensely fond of pfannkuchen, and asked him whether we could get any at Ludwigswinkel. "Yes," he said "but they bake them only on one side there." This was discouraging news to me, and in disgust I told him I wouldn't eat one of them, and that I believed the Bayerische didn't know how to bake and cook them right.
Soon we reached the village of Ludwigswinkel (Louis's corner-corner here meaning some small out-of-the-way place; a nook). Here we expected an Uncle Fritz, my Mother's youngest brother, from Pirmasens, with a conveyance to take us to the city. We went to the little Inn, and in a short time he came with the regulation two-wheeled vehicle, a kind of van or cart, accompanied by a driver, used to traverse this mountainous region. It was the first time I had seen him to remember him. He was in the highest state of joyful excitement when he saw us, and took a special interest and fancy to me, when he observed my French attire, red cap, etc., and my enthusiasm for my country and her institutions, especially her liberty. He was all excitement, a man I judge then about twenty years old.
There was a reason for this. When the French Revolution of July 1830 broke out, its fires ran across the German border, and set the people there on fire. Especially in Wurtenberg, Badjn, and the Bavarian Palatinate, in which Pirmaseus is situated. Especially in the cities and larger towns did the excitement for "Liberty" break out. In Pirmaseus crowds assembled in the streets, singing liberty hymms, the Marseilleise included, and they carried it so far in many places, as at Pirmaseus, as to plant "liberty tree" in the public squares. This Uncle Fritz Kull was one of the ring leaders. It was some time before the Military could suppress this nascent revolution. When order was restored, he had the satisfaction of being sent back two or three years, I have forgotten the exact number, but think it was two years to the Army as a punic ment and to "take the French passion for Liberty and Revolution out of him." He had just finished this Military service. He was still full of this "passion" however, in the early part of 1834 when he met him at Ludwigswinkel. He had been back from the Army about a year. Everything French excited his enthusiasm. So the little lively, patriotic French Nephew became at once his idol. He declared I should have what ever I wanted and as much pfannekuchen as I could eat. I had my suspicions of this pastry, however, but said nothing at first. He gave orders at once to the cook to bestir herself and furnish her best in that line. Soon I began to be greeted with the most delicious fragance and I peeped into the kitchen cautiously to see how they were being baked. To my satisfaction I saw the cook turning the kuchen over, browning them magnificiently on both sides and in a manner that excited my amazement. But instead of turning them with the usual broad flat sholel-like empliment, she took the long handle of the pan in her two hands, tosses the cake up with a motion so as to make it turn in the air, and then caught it again in the pan browned side up. This was a feat common with skillful cooks, but which I had never seen performed. The eier-kucken was brought to me superbly done, and several in succession. Then I told "Onkel Fritz" what the Revenue officer had told me about these kucken being baked at this village only on one side. He broke into a hilarious laugh; the thing amused him wonderfully. He at once took me out of doors to look at the village. Then I noticed that the entire village was built on only one side of the road, and so of course, everything was bake only on one side. I never forgot this Bavarian joke and never wearied of telling of it after I returned to Worth, as a puzzle to others; and always enjoyed it immensely when they could not solve the mystery.
FROM LUDWIGSWINKEL TO PIRMASEUS
Early in the afternoon we started from Ludwigswinkel tp Pirmaseus. My uncle and the driver, a Groll, good-natured fellow walked. The rest of us, my mother and sister, and myself rode in the mountain cart. I shall remember this journey as long as I live. The country is mountainous and largly covered with magnificient forests. Just such scenery as would delight and excite a boy of my temperament and predilections. The road for some number of miles was a narrow, steep, rocky pass, called "Esels stag," so called, doubtless, because of its roughness and steepness. No ordinary carriage would have got along well over this pass. "Esel" is the German for ass or donkey. "Stag" (used also for stairs) applied to a road means a steep passage. This road had been traversed of old chiefly by donkeys, I suppose. I walked often up the steepest rockest ascents. I was amazingly amused by the many jokes Uncle Fritz was constantly playing off on the friver, and his immensely good-humored attempts at witty retorts.
Towards evening, we struck the fine broad turnpike, "Chadssee" as they are called in Germany, that ran from Landad to Pirmaseus. It was already dark when we approached the city. I had already told Uncle Fritz that I could sing the Marseillaise. As we came near the gates of the city, he told me to sing it as loud as I could. This pleased me. I told him if I could ride the horse on a kind of saddle he carried, I would do it. I mounted and with a voice that rang strong and clear, through the narrow streets, solid with horses, I did my best with the glorous French hymn of Liberty; singing it from beginning to end. This song was at that time forbidden in this German Rhine region. I did not know this nor would I have cared. My uncle was delighted to the top of enthusiasm. Many people stuck their heads out into the darkness to see what this unusal noise was; this only excited me the more. But before anybody could detect the offenders, we were safe in the house of Uncle Fritz; where Uncle Fritz, with wild enthusiastic gestures, recounted my numerous exploits. I was a "Hero," and felt it, we stayed here some two weeks and the returned the same road and the same was to Worth.
MY MOTHER'S FAMILY
My mother's Father was a well to do burgher of Pirmaseus, a glaizer by profession. He owned considerable property in the city and in the district, in the way of field, vineyard, etc., I am not certain about his first name, but believe it was CHRISTIAN. A part of the time he was superintendent of expensive glass works in the neighborhood of Pirmaseus; there were a number of these establishments in these mountains. My mother showed me her family home. A fine house in a prominent part of the city. Of my Mother's brothers and sisters, I knew but three. Henry the oldest of the family. Fritz, the youngest., and Aunt "Lena," then Madame Lindner; Lindner was an exellent citizen of Pirmasues, engaged in the manufacture of all kinds of ropes, and other things belonging to that trade. All these lived at Pirmaseus. Wilhelm, Sophie, and perhaps one or two others had died in youth. The father and mother had also died some years before I visited Pirmaseus, not long after my Mother's marriage.
My Uncle Heinrich Hill was a character. Both he and Fritz had inherited their Father's trade. Napoleon had annexed all those German Provinces along the Rhine. Heinrich was in the French Army that invaded Russia. He was with the Corps that occupied the Russian City of Dantzing when they were beseiged by the German allied army. The French had to capitulate, and my Uncle knowing that Napoleon was swiftly nearing the final catastrophe, took service in the German Army, as a German. After his term of service was at an end, he returned to his native city.
Of his history in the Army, I know but little. One fact however, I remember. He was in a Regiment of Dragoons in the French service. After the fashion, this Corps, like most of the Cavalry of ante-Napoleonic days, wore each man, two long "ques," hanging down of the neck and the back, as a protection against sabor cuts on the neck, the place always especially aimed at in a fight. This refers to the German Corps. I don't know whether the French Dragoons had the same habit. Napoleon abolished at once this old custom among the Germans that came under his control. These Dragoons took this very hard. They had always taken a great pride in their "queses." Like others, my Uncle Heinrich preserved his two queues, as memorials of his soldiering days, and coerced them with a kind of tender affection. As to courage, he was a kind of "Daredevil" in his earlier life. He was afraid of nothing, by day or night. He would journey by night as readily as bye day, and felt as easy among the gloomiest forests of his country, in the deepest darkness, as in full day amid the open fields. Many stories of this utterly reckless courage I have heard oh him. He would often start after night from some neighboring town or village, where he was on business, to go on foot for miles through the deepest loneliest forests, back to Pirmasues. No entreaty or remonstrance could disuade him from it. Beyond doubt, his long military campaigning had imbued him with this reckless, adventurous fearlessness. It had also made him defiant against dignitaries and authorities. Of much of which he had not a very good opinion. He had married a Catholic. A worthy good- natured women whom I knew well; but the priest had a wholesome dread of him. He once or twice ventured to come to his house to give spiritual advice to his wife. His reception was such, that he never verntured to do this again, the fierce Dragoon who had learned in Napoleonic times to know and that the Roman Catholic Clergy had taken up a good cudgel, and told the priest that if he didn't instantly leave the house, he would lay it over his head, and the Father wisely retired. The reason my Uncle had for this summary proceeding, was that the Priest was in the habit of interfering in familier, especially in "mixed families." The Napoleonic soldiers were generally a terror to the priests. My uncle Heinrich was in very good circumstances, and carried on a considerable business and trade in Pirmaseus and over a large district of County. His brother Fritz was not so well off. My Aunt Lindner was a woman of strong character. A noble woman. She was a number of years older then my Mother. She visited us sometimes at Worth. It was always on these occasions a great delight to me to listen to her telling in her rich Palitinate dielect, with her strong vigorous speech. She was, like my Mother of firm, decided habits of thought and action. Well indoctrinated in the trustest Christian straightness of life, and fearless. I have seen my Mother manifest the characteristics on many trying occasions. The family were most decided Protestants. Reared to love, honor and defend the Protestant faith, and to abhor the superstitions of Romanism. After a stay of some two or three weeks we returned again the same way to Worth. This was the only time in my early life that I was on German soil. I never again saw any of my relatives of Pirmaseus until we lived at Somerset, when the oldest son of my Uncle, Philipp Kull, also named Philipp, came there to visit me. He had been in Heckers Revolutionary attempt in Baded in 1848, following the Revolution of that year in Paris. He had enlisted in the "Patroit Army," which was crushed by the Russians under the command of Crown Prince Wilhelm afterwards the German Kaiser. The leaders who were taken were shot by the "merciful" commander, and the rest all who were foreigners, sent through France, to the United States; among them Philipp Kull. I entertained him several weeks as Somerset, and then sent him to my brother Philipp, to Smithfield, Ohio. Hefferson County, some ten miles from Wellshirg. I thought he might work with Philipp, who was a cabinet maker as he (Kull) was brought up to his Father's trade, as a glacier etc., a maker of windows, a worker in wood. He was however, a noisy, turbulant revolutionist. Demoralized and of no account. He soon left Philipp and I never heard what became of him.
OUR OWN FAMILYThe record of the children born to my Mother and Father, is given by my Father on the blank leaves of a family prayer book, now in my possession, and kept in the rosewood box sent to me by my Aunt Louise's orders after her death. It is as follows:
SOPHIE EMILIE, Born November 29th, 1822 between nine and ten O'clock P.M. baptized (date not given)
KARL LUDWIG, December 22nd, 1822, between six and seven O'clock P.M. baptized December 28, following.
LOUISE CATHERINE, (German Form) (full-Luivise) Nov. 14th, 1825 between seven and eight O'clock P.M. baptized the 20th same month.
DOROTHEA CAROLINA, May 5th, 9 O'clock A.M. baptized the 12th
PHILIPP JACOB, July 23rd, 1830, between four and fine O'clock P.M. baptized the
The first part of this name is for my Father's brother, the second his own.
WILHEMINE, February 20th, 1832, 9 O'clock A.M. baptized March 3rd. This name is the feminine of Wilhelm (William) my Uncle's name. The longest interval between births and baptism was in this case, and it occasioned a good deal of censure among the neighbors and with the Pastor. My Father however, while a religious man, was intelligent and had no superstitions concerning the baptism of infants. He did not believe they would suffer by delaying this rite, least of all that they would be "lost," if they died "unbaptised."
All these children were born in Worth. Although I am not quite certain about Carolina. I have had some vague idea that she was born in Strasburg, where the family lived a short time. But as there is nothing said about it in the record, the probability is that she also was born at Worth. She died in infancy. I remember distinctly watching from my Grandmother's window, with whom I lived) the little funeral, with the little coffin going down the street to the graveyard, on a dark afternoon, and the whole scene made a deep solemn impression on me. The picture had never faded from my memory. I remember one single incident connected with the death of this little sister. My Mother, who was a woman of the intensest feeling, was in great agony over the last moments of the dying child. When the last breathe was gone, and all believed she was dead, the poor mother, in tolerable grief, kissed her once more and cried out "Lina, my Lina," the little child opened its eyes wide once more and looked at its Mother earnestly. It had evidently while already dying, and flying away, heard the Mother's voice, and gave this last recognition. My grandmother rebuked gently my Mother for this, in passionate grief, "recalling the departing spirit." It is a current feeling in that land that it is wrong, not "pious," thus to disturb the dying. As is customary in that land especially among the German race, the children, usually, as a mark of affection, are all called by a "diminative," an abbreviated form of their names. My oldest sister was called "Emmelinele," the second "Ludwisels" the third "Carolinele," Philipp-- "ippel," the last "minnele," and I "Charele" (pronounce every syllable) that is, Sharele, according to the French of this name. When I grew up, my family always called me Charles (Sharls). My Mother never pronounced that name otherwise when she called me. The rest of the family, when they began to speak English exclusively, pronounced it in English except when they spoke German in the family. Although in school when in Europe I always, when writing German, wrote my name Karl Ludwig, yet I was never called by the German Form; when writing French, I of course wrote my name in that tongue, Charles Louis. My Father, after his marriage, established himself in his native place, Worth as "Maite Tailleur." When I was five years old, he removed to the city of Strasburg to improve his condition. He remained I think about two or three years there, and finding no better chances for making a living, he returned again to Worth. After the family had been about a year in Strasburg, my Grandmother took me back again to Worth. I still have memories of my life in Strasburg. The narrow streets, the soldiers, the extra ordinary excitement when the King Charles X visited that city, the Catholic Procession, etc. Here I first saw Negroes and Indians, going about as shows. It was an amazing sight to me. Two personal incidents made a deep impression on me. The "Tissot" family were living in Strasburg, as my Uncle Tissot was stationed there as an officer of the "dousanfers." This city was the headquarters of this important service. I was often at their house playing with my cousin Lina (Caroline), about two years, or one, younger then I. One day we were careering through the rooms in a noisy way. Again and again Madams Tissot would stop our noisy performances, but with out much success. All at once, as I was going full speed through the rooms, I stumbled, and came down with my face on the floor. I got up stunned and hurt, and when the blood began to pour out of my nose I yelled "come un loop" as the French say. "Ah, polison" said my Aunt. "You have got it finally, have you? Do you know who did that?" I told her that I didn't know. "Well then, said she, "Look there on the wall, do you see that?" There was a picture of Christ with the crown of thorns hanging on the wall. I looked bewildered. "That is the Good Lord, (der HerrGott;) he has punished you" this was adding, I thought insult to my injury. I looked at the picture, enraged, and cried out in passion, in good vigorous Alsatian "Ich will 'ne nit, so a Her-gott. Wirf ne'nus. 'sish a basser Kerl." (ich will ihn nicht, so boser sinen herr-gott. Wirf ihn himans, as isst emboser Kerl) ("I don't want such a God. Throw him out. He is a bad fellow.) My Aunt often told this story about me, to the great amusement of the family. She remembered it at Worth when I saw her in 1868. The other was a far more serious matter, and might have been fatal to me. Near us lived one of those bad boys, that are prematurely and phenomally wicked and dangerous. If that lad ever grew to be a man, I am sure he had a terrible history. He was what the French call, a "mauvais sujet." The incident was this: Through the city of Strasburg, flows the little river "Ill." The Alsa as the latins called it, from which the Province is called "Alsatia" etc., the land of the "Alsa." The old Germans called it more rudely the "Ill" or "Ell," and vulgarized the sonorous "Alsatia" into Elsass." The little river has long since been deely dredged and flanked by solid stone walls, so that it is quite deep, and boats come up on it into the city, from the Rhine. It is also dammed up in the city for the use of a mill. This is a little below where the bridge crosses that leads from the city to the railroad station, and also a little below the Hotel'Angleterri' is to the mill. Stone steps all along these quays lead down to the water. Neat these steps also are frequently fastened skiffs, used to pass up and down the river, and cross it. The young rascal whom I have mentioned, spent his entire time commiting all kinds of villianess, especially ugly tricks on smaller boys; he was himself about 11 or 12 years old. One day he took me to the quay not far above the mill. Nearby the Hotal Angleterri and on the same side. He led me down the steps and put me in one of these skiffs, then unloosened it from the iron ring in the wall and pushed it into the stream. I was absolutely terror stricken to find myself drifting thus alone in a boat into a droad deep water, a little boy only about five or six years old who had never been in a boat in his life. The current was considerable and drifted me on towards the mill. I was fully aware of the danger. For at the mill the river shoots violently down several siuices under the mill wheels. Where certain death would await me if I reached there. I cried loud and piteously, and called for help. I remember I tried to stand up several times, but the rocking of the little boat threw me down every time I attempted to stand up. My nose bled profusely and my face was hurt and bleeding in several places. Finally help came; someone put out in a skiff to my rescue and I was saved. The terror of this scene and peril remained with me for a long time, and the memory of it was burned into my soul; I can see the whole scene at this moment, after sixty years. The affair raised quitte an excitement in our neighborhood, but what was doen with the evil-doer, or whether anything was done with him, I do not now know. This incident, and another that happened to me at Worth so impressed themselves on my Grandmother's mind, that she came firmly to believe and often predicted that I would die by drowning. My Grandmother had a garden at Worth that ran down to Sauer, the stream that runs, as I have already said through Worth, and just where the arm of it that leaves it above the town and joins it again below, which gives the name to the town, so that right at the foot of the garden, there is considerable current and a "Meeting of the waters." The bank is quite high and stone steps led to the edge of the waters. It was, and I suppose is yet, a favorite place for bathing for boys and girls; not too deep immediately at the foot of the steps. I had asked my grandmother who was busy in the garden to let me go into the water and bathe; she allowed me to go with the strict injunction not to venture away. By some mishap I got into one of the holes created by the uniting of the two currents, and went under, just then my grandmother fortunately called for me, and although under the water I heard her, and by a strong effort got my head above it and answered. She said she instantly knew by the weakness of my voice and by the confusion of my answer that something was the matter. She immediately ran down the steps and rushed into the stream and rescued me, already almost entirely unconscious. She laid me on the grassy bank and worked (with) me until I had quite recovered myself and then dried my clothes as best she could. Fortunately it was mid summer. I told her how it had happened, that I had slipped into a hole. I remember the lesson she gave me and the solemn warning about the danger in the waters. When we started for America the fear about my drowning actually took possession of her mind to such a degree that she once or twice dreamed that I had really been drowned. This dread with her arose from my venturesomeness which she understood very well. And her fears came very near being true. It is a wonder it was not. One fine day while we were crossing the ocean, I took it into my head that it would be a delightful thing to enjoy the ocean of the ship by sitting astride of the bulwards. Now as the top was covered with copper and so very smooth and afforded no chance of holding on, under the ship was constant swinging up and down, it was a perilous and made act to get astride of it with one leg thus hanging on the outside over the water. The matter was reported to Mother who lay very sick with ship fever below. Very prudently she commissioned a German schoolmaster to see to me at once to get me off my dangerous seat without frightening me, and then when off to chastise me. All this he did faithfully. The blow I got from him I remembered long against him, vowing to be avenged on him, someday. When I came down to my Mother's berth she severly reprimanded me and then reminded me of my grandmothers dreams and prediction. I think my grandmother learned some way of this incident on the ship.